Since the inception of the gas powered engine dating back to 1903, there has been over 100 years of improvements and breakthroughs. From new abilities to greater efficiency, much has been achieved in regards to development. Currently, there are a diverse set of aircraft engine types, each having their own advantages and disadvantages. In this blog, we will give a short overview of a few common engine types.
 
The most widely used commercial aircraft engine parts comes in the form of the turbofan. Utilizing a gigantic fan attached to the engine, a great amount of air can be brought into the combustion chambers, increasing achievable thrust at low speeds and remaining relatively quiet. With turbofans, the air is drawn into the engine, which after compressing it, a mixture of air and fuel is combusted, driving the turbine to create thrust and is then ejected. The disadvantages of turbofans are that they lack efficiency at higher altitudes and have a much heavier weight than other types. As compared to engines such as turbojets, turbofans are much more fuel efficient.
 
Turbojets are relatively simplistic in design; air enters the back of the engine and undergoes compression. This air is then mixed with fuel, combusted, and then drives the turbine similar to a turbofan. As air is directed into the compressor, turbojets operate well at lower speeds with slighter air loss.
 
Ramjets are a more unique type of gas powered engine that do not feature any moving parts as compared to the others. Due to this, ramjets are fairly light and rely on the speed of the aircraft to have air intake and greater compression. Because of this, ramjets have limited ability to create thrust at low speeds, and very often rely on the aid of other systems to successfully take off.
 
At Jet Parts 360, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find parts for all aircraft engine types you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@jetparts360.com or call us at +1-708-387-7800.


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Since the 1930’s and World War II, the primary method of aircraft tracking has been done through the use of radars. In the cases of both normal flight or search and rescue, radars help position the aircraft so that flight controllers know where they are at all times possible. This is achieved through a primary and secondary radar. The primary radar tracks the approximate position through reflecting radio signals. The secondary radar, on the other hand, tracks aircraft through the use of the transponder that communicates with the radar. While this proves to be fairly functional for tracking, these systems often fail to be accurate, or track at all, when the aircraft is too far over the sea, or if the aircraft is at lower altitudes as they rely on ground stations. In this article, we will discuss the possible future of aircraft tracking that may come to replace the standard of the radar in the coming years.
 
After major world events like the disappearance of Malaysian flight 370, the discussion of improving how we track aircraft has never been more present. One technology that has been touted as a solution is the automatic dependent surveillance broadcast, or ADS-B. The ADS-B works by utilizing constant GPS pings every half second and then reporting the information to nearby aircraft and ground receivers. The benefits in this system is that they utilize more accurate satellite tracking and can be installed onto locations such as oil rigs to provide more coverage in the sea where radar construction is not feasible. While this technology may serve as an improvement to tracking as compared to radar, it still falls short on its own without the ability to track aircraft far over the ocean.
 
Aireon’s Iridium NEXT system claims to be the solutions to this problem with the use of a global communication network of 66 satellites equipped with ADS-B receivers that have been launched into space, creating a net over the earth. Through these satellites, aircraft positions are said to be captured, transmitted to nearby satellites, and then sent to the closest teleport. As compared to standard satellites and GPS tracking, these satellites are also able to have much more accuracy at the North and South Pole. This system could possibly create a constant global tracking system of accurate aircraft positioning as more airlines adopt ADS-B technology.
 
Although radar tracking has served airlines and personnel for many decades, the advent of new tracking technology can greatly revolutionize how we can monitor air traffic. With the use of technologies such as ADS-B and the Iridium NEXT system, it may be very possible to have a constant global network of aircraft tracking, tremendously increasing flight safety and search and rescue operations that has never been seen.
 
At Jet Parts 360, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find aircraft tracking and radar parts you need, new or obsolete. As a premier supplier of parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries, we're always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7x365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@jetparts360.com or call us at +1-708-387-7800.


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For those unfamiliar with aviation and aeronautical jargon, the term ground support equipment (GSE) refers to the support equipment found at an airport. To better understand GSE, you have to understand what ground handling is. Ground handling is an aviation term that refers to the services performed on an aircraft while it is still on the ground at the terminal gate. These services can include such things as cabin service (cabin replenishing for instance), and ramp service (aircraft marshalling, towing, lavatory drainage, etc). Ground handling also refers to the maintenance done on an aircraft that is grounded, that is, one cannot fly until the parts needing maintenance are taken care of. This is where GSE comes into play.
 
GSE serves an important role that often goes unnoticed by the average civilian-- they are responsible for correcting and repairing parts on planes that need maintenance. For a brief outline of GSE, read on below.
 
Dollies - Dollies are an important device in GSE, as they act as the transport equipment for many heavy and bulky items. Dollies are a platform on wheels that is used to carry and transport heavy and cumbersome items from one place to another. Used in warehouses, factories, and even retail stores, dollies are especially useful in airports because an airport can span for miles and having a dolly to transport material is a godsend.
 
Container Loader - These are commonly referred to as K loaders. They’ve been used to unload and load pallets on and off an aircraft. These types of loaders have two platforms that can be raised loader and lowered loader. These loaders are built in with wheels making them conveniently mobile, and are offered in a variety of sizes including, but not limited, to 35 T, 7 T, and 30 T.
 
Ground Power Units - Ground power units are mobile power units that are designed to provide power to parked aircraft. Ground power units are sometimes built directly into the jetway for an easier power supply access. Aircraft power requirements can range from 28 volts of direct-current to 115 volts 400 Hz alternating-current.
 
At Jet Parts 360, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@asappartsunlimited.com or call us at 1-708-387-7800.
 


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The most commonly used type of aircraft are commercial planes, but beyond this, not many people are aware of the other aircraft categories that exist. They can be classified into two different categories, which are aircraft that are lighter than air and aircraft that are heavier than air. With regards to the former, lighter than air vessels utilize buoyancy to float in the air, much like how boats do so in the water. They tend to have one or more large canopies that are filled with helium, hydrogen or hot air. These are relatively low density gasses, which are less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. As for aircraft that are heavier than air, these vessels fly because they push air or gas downwards, thus enabling Newton’s law of motion. For a basic outline of the aircraft under these two categories, read on below.
 
Fixed-wing
           
The aircraft under this category are airplanes, which are characterized by their method of propulsion and by their wing configuration (whether its monoplane or biplane). Other characterizations include wing support (rigid or flexible), the location of the horizontal stabilizer and the Dihedral angle (some are positive, zero or negative/anhedral). The majority of fixed-wing aircraft feature a tail unit or empennage incorporating vertical, and often horizontal, stabilizing surfaces.
 
Balloon
 
Powered balloons, first commonly known as dirigibles, were characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags. The largest of these were known as Zeppelins. With time came new changes to the design, and eventually the dirigibles were more commonly being referred to as blimps.
 
Rotorcraft
 
Rotorcraft also known as a rotary-wing aircraft can take flight by use of a rotary wing, that is, a spinning rotor with aerofoil section blades. The different types of rotorcrafts include helicopters, autogyros and various hybrids. Helicopters have a powered rotor which is driven by the engine. By pushing air downward, the helicopter can create lift and by tilting the rotor forwards, the downwards flow is tilted backwards, producing thrust for forward flight.
 
At Jet Parts 360, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts by aircraft, parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@jetparts360.com or call us at 1-708-387-7800.


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Before an aircraft takes flight, there is a lot of inspection and maintenance that happens both before the day of flight and a few hours prior to takeoff. Those hours before flight are very important as that is the last opportunity to catch any anomalies that need to be inspected. During these check ups, the flight crew checks on things like engine condition and lubricant levels to spot anything different from what is standard. Then there are some items that must be inspected on a cyclic schedule. These items are checked during what is known as the hot section inspection or HSI.
 
Hot Section Inspection
 
The HSI is exactly what is sounds like: it refers to the inspection of the parts in the engine that are exposed to heat and pressure of fuel combustion. The purpose of this inspection is to ensure that these components are fully functional and capable of producing rated power. These parts typically consist of compressor turbines, temperature sensors and connectors, stationary vane rings, blades of power, and the compressor inlet. If any of these items do not meet standard, then the parts will have to be disassembled and replaced.
 
Overhaul
 
The first step for the overhaul of an engine is usually the disassembling of parts. Maintenance for a jet engine will sometimes be done “on wing” but often it is necessary to remove it entirely from the aircraft. After the engine is disassembled, each part is cleaned prior to inspection and then analyzed for wear and tear. Items exceedingly worn can ultimately lead to failure of a component and will need to be replaced. Some of the testing that is performed include the dye penetration test, x-ray inspections, and electronic assessments. The entire overhaul process can take up to a few days before all the replacement parts are brought in and undergo installation and a test run. After this, if the new assembly passes inspection, the engine goes through another run for TBO (Time Before Overhaul) to certify that it is performing at standard shape.
 
At Jet Parts 360, owned and operated by ASAP Semiconductor, we can help you find all the unique parts for the aerospace, civil aviation, and defense industries. We’re always available and ready to help you find all the parts and equipment you need, 24/7-365. For a quick and competitive quote, email us at sales@jetparts360.com or call us at 1-708-387-78006.


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Jet engines operate by igniting a mixture of air and fuel and using the resulting gases to produce thrust. It doesn’t take an expert to figure out that moisture can have an adverse effect on an engine’s combustion process. So what exactly happens to jet engines in inclement weather? While jet engines are not totally immune to the elements, there are many features protecting jet engines from experiencing difficulties. Flameouts are the biggest threats caused by moisture such as  rain and ice. In its most basic definition, a flameout is the loss of engine power due to factors unrelated to mechanical failure. A flameout can be caused by the loss of fuel, air, or heat. While flameouts must be taken seriously, they are exceedingly rare and can be fixed mid-flight.
 
In addition to flameouts being extremely rare, it is highly unusual that moisture is the cause. Although rain is capable of hindering the function of a jet engine, it is rarely a noticeable effect. The majority of storms do not create enough rain or snow to disturb the engines, and the ice crystals that clouds are made of are far too small to affect function. The extreme heat of the combustion chamber provides its own defense mechanism, evaporating these minute levels of moisture almost immediately. Only very significant storms could strain a jet engine, and in those cases it is very likely that an aircraft will take a detour and circumvent the storm altogether.
 
Significant moisture like large hail, ice, and freezing rain are the toughest to deal with. Large hail is capable of damaging the engine or aircraft’s skin, but as it is only prevalent in large storms, it is easily avoided with a flight detour. Freezing rain is problematic since it can cause ice buildup on the engine inlet, the duct responsible for smooth airflow from all directions into the engine. If ice is able to build up, large chunks can separate and enter the engine, thereby hindering the combustion process and leading to flameout.
 
Each aircraft is built with a myriad of safety features that deal specifically with inclement weather and the prevention of flameouts. Engines are equipped with intricate heating systems that control the temperature of areas where ice is more likely to appear. In addition to this, the center of the engine is spotted with bits of rubber that vibrate to shake off ice that has accumulated. Igniters are a safety feature in the combustion chamber that re-ignite the mixture of fuel and air to restart the engine. They operate very similarly to spark plugs in an automobile. Standard igniters are usually turned on manually, but certain new aircraft have sensors which will start them automatically as the combustion process begins to struggle. Igniters have been utilized in a few cases to restart engines that have flamed out allowing aircraft to continue safely to their desired locations.  
 
The safety of jet engines and flight in general cannot be overstated. To learn more about jet engines and their parts, come visit our Jet Parts 360 website at https://www.jetparts360.com. There you will find our vast inventory of NSN parts, FSC parts, and CAGE Codes.
We also welcome you to contact us by phone at (708)387-7800 or email at sales@jetparts360.com.


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When your plane arrives at its destination and slowly moves towards the terminal, you may have noticed several different pieces of equipment waiting to service the plane. Tow tractors, cranes, dollies, and ground support personnel busying about, waiting to perform crucial maintenance on the plane you just exited. This ground support is the lifeline for successful flights.
 
Aircraft ground support equipment refers to the various tools and devices used to service aircrafts that aren’t in flight. This process requires a fleet of operators to adhere to precise handling rules so that the machinery they use works as intended. There are different variations of non-powered equipment such as chocks, dollies,  tripod jacks, and rollers. There are also different types of powered equipment as well, such as refuelers, tugs and tractors, ground power units, container loaders, and buses.
 
The equipment required to service aircraft systems include power generators, cabin pressure test units, fluid servicing units, munitions loading system, and electrical testers. All of which are designed to be self-propelled, trailer mounted, or towed for ease of access and maneuverability. Ground support equipment can define the success of an entire aviation establishment, whether it be an airport or military air base. The complete servicing process must coincide firmly within industry standards while operating at a minimum life-cycle cost.
 
Not everything you find at a commercial airport will be found at a military airfield, which is simply due to military aircraft being equipped with items which have no translatable purpose or use in the civilian market. The most common type of ground service equipment found in a military airfield is a hydraulic loader, used to load pieces of ordnance (bullets, bombs, missiles). Dedicated military service equipment must be utterly reliable and dependable, simple to use, and quick to learn. Ground service equipment plays an integral role in the maintenance, specialized technical support, operational safety, and towing of aircraft.


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In a typical reciprocating combustion engine, as seen in automobiles and propeller-driven aircraft, the functions of intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust all take place in the same combustion chamber. Therefore, each must have exclusive occupancy of the chamber during its part in the combustion cycle. Gas turbines, however, have separate sections for each function, and all functions are performed simultaneously without interruption.
 
These sections typically consist of:
  1. An air inlet, where the air enters the engine
  2. A compressor section
  3. A combustion section
  4. A turbine section
  5. An exhaust section
  6. An accessory section
  7. Systems used in starting, lubrication, fuel supply, and auxiliary purposes, such as anti-icing, cooling, and pressurization
 
There are four gas turbine engines used to power jet aircraft: turbofans, turboprops, turboshaft, and turbojet. While turbojets were the first type of turbine engine to be developed, they are noisy and have high fuel consumption at the speeds most airliners fly at, so turbojets are fairly limited in use
 
Most turbine-driven aircraft use turbofan engines. A turbofan has a large fan or set of fans at the front of the engine that produces about eighty percent of the thrust from the engine, with less noise and fuel consumption. Turbofan engines have more than one shaft in the engine, with most having two. These two-shafted engines use two spools (the compressor, shaft, and turbines), divided between a high-pressure spool and low-pressure spool.
 
Turbofans are either low bypass or high bypass. The amount of air bypassed around the core determines the bypass ratio: if, for example, a turbofan has 100 pounds per second of air flowing through the fan, and 20 pounds per second flowing through the core, the engine has a 5:1 bypass ratio. Some low-bypass turbofan engines are used in speeds above .8 Mach, and use afterburners to increase thrust. By adding more fuel nozzles and a flame holder in the exhaust system, extra fuel can be sprayed and burned which gives large increases to thrust for a short time.
 
Turboprop engines are gas turbine engines that turn propellers through a speed reduction gear box. This type of engine is most efficient at 300 to 400 mph, and can use shorter runways than other aircraft. Eighty to eighty five percent of the energy that the engine produces is used to drive the propeller, while the rest exist the exhaust as thrust.
 
Lastly, turboshaft engines transfer horsepower to a shaft that turns a helicopter transmission or serves as an auxiliary power unit (APU). APUS are used to provide electrical power and bleed air on the ground, and as a backup generator in flight. Turboshaft engines can come in a variety of configurations and horsepower range.


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Much like starting a car’s engine, starting the turbine engines on a commercial airliner is a complicated endeavor. When a turbine engine’s main fan in the front begins to spin, it is actually one of the latter steps in a process that ends with the engines at full power and the aircraft taking off into the sky.
 
The engine start-up sequence begins with the auxiliary power unit, or APU. The APU is a miniature jet engine with its own compressor, combustor, and turbine that provides electricity to the aircraft and compressed air for the air conditioning system while the aircraft is on the ground. Despite being a jet engine in design, the APU does not provide thrust to the aircraft. In addition to its other duties, the APU provides the first step in starting the jet’s main engines and causing its blades to rotate.
 
After passengers are onboard and buckled in, the APU begins to send compressed air to the jet’s main turbine engines. The compressed air passes through a small turbine on the outside of the engine, which causes it to spin. Attached to this turbine is a shaft which connects via gears to the main engine shaft, which begins to spin as well.
 
Once the main engine shaft and its blades are spinning, the pilot adds fuel to the combustor section of the engine. An electric spark then ignites the mixture of fuel and air, and the exhaust passes from the combustor out through another turbine of blades, speeding the engine up to the point that it is self-sustaining. More fuel can then be added, which speeds the engine up even more, increasing its power output and eventually enabling flight.


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As you gaze into the sky and look about the horizon, an ascending airplane catches your eye— you marvel in its magnificence and can’t help but to feel inspired by the wonders of flight. The aircraft travels so effortlessly from afar, almost as if it can fly forever. As flawless as it might seem, there comes a time when every plane must be decommissioned. So, what determines the lifespan of a plane? Where do they go after they can’t fly anymore?

The determined aircraft lifespan is established by the manufacturer. It is not measured in total years of service; instead, it is calculated by the amount of pressurization cycles it endures. This refers to the amount of time that the aircraft is kept under pressure from flight, and the amount of stress put on the fuselage and wings. Short-haul flights often grant shorter lifespans while long-haul flights allow for longer lifespans. Shorter flights lead to more pressurization cycles, shortening longevity. A Boeing 747 can withstand approximately 35,000 pressurization cycles—roughly 165,000 flight hours. Airlines must decide on when to retire an aircraft based on profitability and public safety.

Airlines are continuously upgrading their aircraft due to changing tastes of consumers. There are planes that are capable of flying for several decades, however, commercial airline passengers wouldn’t be willing to pay top dollar for them without integrated advancements. Manufacturers commonly offer upgraded features which leads to a decrease in demand of older model aircraft, which also contributes to its lifespan. Airlines with the newest planes tend to have more customers flying at a given time because of increased customer satisfaction.

Decommissioned aircraft eventually make their way to the southwestern American desert that includes parts of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Massive aircraft storage sites house these planes in arid climates which slow down the rusting process, allowing the spare parts to be used or sold later. Secondhand aircraft parts are hot commodities as most of them still function and are significantly cheaper than new ones. Almost every part of an airplane can be recycled for use in newer planes.

Engines are in high demand because their turbines contain rotating blades that must be swapped out regularly to stay in compliance with safety regulations. Trading out these blades for used ones can cost upwards of two million dollars, roughly half the price of buying new parts. Once an aircraft has been stripped of all of its usable parts, the metal frame is melted down and used as scrap. In some cases, the raw materials are repurposed. Multiple recycling operations in the US and Europe specialize in this processing. The next time you drink from an aluminum can, consider that what you’re holding may have flown across the skies at one point!


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